Which words are in the academic collocations list?

This is the third and final lesson about Academic Word Lists. To complete this course, read each lesson carefully and then unlock and complete our materials to check your understanding.   

– Introduce the concept of an academic collocations list

– Direct the learner to a free online collocations list

– Host that list for free on Academic Marker

Lesson 3

In addition to the academic words and phrases provided in Lesson 1 and 2 of this short course, students may also find the Academic Collocations List (ACL) helpful in their studies. Developed by Kirsten Ackermann and Yu-Hua Chen using the Pearson International Corpus of Academic English (https://pearsonpte.com/organizations/researchers/academic-collocation-list/), this list contains 2,469 of the most frequent academic collocations. While many of the words on this list are also contained in the Academic Word List (AWL), the ACL helpfully provides these words in their most frequent combinations (collocations).   

ability

cognitive ability

abstract

abstract concept

abuse

sexual abuse

academy

(in) academic circles, academic achievement, academic career, academic community, academic debate, academic discipline, academic discourse, academic institution, academic journal, academic life, academic performance, academic research, academic skills, academic study, academic success, academic work, academic world, academic writing, academic year

accept

accept responsibility, acceptable behaviour, socially acceptable, widespread acceptance, (be) commonly accepted, (be) generally accepted, (be) universally accepted, (be) widely accepted

access

allow access (to), deny access (to), direct access, easy access, electronic access, equal access, free access, gain access (to), give access (to), have access (to), internet access, limited access, online access, open access, provide access (to), public access, ready access, unlimited access, easily accessible, readily accessible

account

brief account, comprehensive account, historical account

accurate

great accuracy, accurate assessment, accurate description, accurate information, accurate measurement, accurate picture, accurate record

achieve

achieve (a) goal, achieve (an) objective, achieve (an) outcome, academic achievement

acquire

acquire knowledge, newly acquired

act

sexual act, appropriate action, collective action, legal action, military action, positive action, active involvement, active participant, active participation, active role, (be) actively involved, political activism, commercial activity, cultural activity, economic activity, engage in (an) activity, human activity, learning activity, physical activity, political activity, professional activity, related activity, social activity, undertake (an) activity

acute

particularly acute, acutely aware

add

add information

additional

additional cost, additional information, additional problem, additional resources, additional support

address

address (an) issue

adjust

structural adjustment, make adjustments

administrate

public administration, administrative practices

adopt

adopt (a) procedure, adopt (an) approach, (be) widely adopted

advance

advanced economy, advanced technology, technological advances

advantage

major advantage

adverse

adverse effect, adverse reaction, adversely affect

affair

economic affairs, financial affairs, internal affairs

affect

affect (the) development (of), affect (the) outcome, adversely affect, directly affect, severely affect, significantly affect, (be) directly affected

agency

federal agency, regulatory agency

agenda

political agenda, set (the) agenda

agree

generally agree, strongly agree, broad agreement, general agreement, international agreement, reach (an) agreement, strongly disagree

aim

overall aim, primary aim

allocate

allocate resources

allow

allow access (to)

ally

(be) closely allied (to, with)

almost

almost identical

alternative

alternative approach, alternative explanation, alternative form, alternative interpretion, alternative means, alternative method, alternative model, alternative solution, alternative source, alternative strategy, alternative view, alternative way, provide (an) alternative

amount

(a) considerable amount (of), (a) huge amount (of), (a) significant amount (of), (a) substantial amount (of), (a) vast amount (of), (an) enormous amount (of)

ample

ample evidence

analyse

careful analysis, comparative analysis, conduct (an) analysis, critical analysis, detailed analysis, economic analysis, final analysis, full analysis, further analysis, historical analysis, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, statistical analysis, subsequent analysis, systematic analysis, textual analysis, thematic analysis, theoretical analysis, use (the) analysis, analytical approach, analytical tool

ancestor

common ancestor

anecdotal

anecdotal evidence

annual

annual conference, annual meeting, annual rate, annual report, annual review

answer

final answer

apparent

become apparent, immediately apparent, particularly apparent

appearance

physical appearance

apply

apply (a) method, apply (the) theory, apply equally

approach

adopt (an) approach, alternative approach, analytical approach, common approach, comprehensive approach, critical approach, develop (an) approach, flexible approach, general approach, holistic approach, integrated approach, logical approach, methodological approach, qualitative approach, quantitative approach, similar approach, standard approach, systematic approach, take (an) approach, theoretical approach, traditional approach, use (an) approach

appropriate

appropriate action, appropriate behaviour, appropriate conditions, appropriate data, appropriate form, appropriate language, appropriate level, appropriate point, appropriate response, appropriate skills, appropriate treatment, appropriate way, consider appropriate, deem appropriate, particularly appropriate, seem appropriate, respond appropriately

area

complex area, core area, cover (an) area, geographic(al) area, identify (an) area, key area, local area, main area, major area, metropolitan area, particular area, problem area, related area, rural area, specific area, subject area, urban area, vast area, whole area, wide area

arena

political arena

argument

compelling argument, counter argument, develop (an) argument, general argument, logical argument, main argument, make (an) argument, present (an) argument, similar argument, support (an) argument, valid argument

armed

armed conflict

arrangement

institutional arrangement, make arrangements

array

(a) vast array (of), (a) wide array (of)

article

publish (an) article

artificial

artificial intelligence

aspect

certain aspect, consider (an) aspect, cultural aspect, focus on (an) aspect, fundamental aspect, general aspect, key aspect, negative aspect, particular aspect, positive aspect, related aspect, social aspect, specific aspect, technical aspect, various aspects

assess

assess (the) impact (of), assessment process, accurate assessment, make (an) assessment, risk assessment

assign

(be) randomly assigned (to)

assist

financial assistance, medical assistance, provide assistance, technical assistance

associate

associated factors, (be) closely associated (with), (be) commonly associated (with), (be) positively associated (with), (be) strongly associated (with)

assume

assume (the) role (of), assume responsibility, (be) generally assumed, basic assumption, common assumption, fundamental assumption, make (an) assumption, underlying assumption, certain assumptions

atom

atomic energy

attempt

deliberate attempt

attend

attend (a) conference

attention

careful attention, considerable attention, critical attention, draw attention (to), focus attention (on)

attitude

change (an) attitude, negative attitude, positive attitude, changing attitudes, cultural attitudes, public attitudes, social attitudes

audience

target audience, wider audience

author

first author, original author

authority

central authority, exercise authority, local authority, political authority, public authority

autonomy

greater autonomy, relative autonomy

available

available data, available evidence, available information, available resources, become available, currently available, freely available, make available, publicly available, readily available, widely available

average

average score, national average

aware

acutely aware, become aware, fully aware, increasingly aware, keenly aware, make aware, well aware, greater awareness, growing awareness, increase awareness, increased awareness, increasing awareness, public awareness, raise awareness

background

background knowledge, cultural background, diverse background, historical background, social background

base

(be) largely based (on), basic assumption, basic component, basic concept, basic element, basic function, basic information, basic premise, basic principle, basic research, basic structure, basic technique, legal basis, theoretical basis

bear

bear resemblance (to)

become

become (a) source (of), become (the) focus (of), become apparent, become available, become aware, become blurred, become established, become evident, become independent, become involved (with/in), become obvious, become visible, become widespread

begin

begin (a) process

behave

behave differently, acceptable behaviour, appropriate behaviour, human behaviour, individual behaviour, sexual behaviour, social behaviour

belief

religious belief, widespread belief, (be) widely believed

benefit

beneficial effect, provide (a) benefit, economic benefits, potential benefits

best

(be) best described (as, in terms of)

binary

binary opposition, binary system

biological

biological evolution, biological science, biological sex

blur

become blurred

body

international body, professional body

bond

strong bond

boundary

clear boundary, cultural boundary, national boundary

brief

brief account, brief description, brief discussion, brief history, brief introduction, brief overview, brief period, brief review, brief summary, brief time, briefly describe, briefly discuss

broad

(a) broad range (of), broad agreement, broad category, broad definition, broad spectrum, broader context, (be) broadly defined, broadly similar

business

business sector, business transaction

call

(be) commonly called

capacity

limited capacity

capitalism

global capitalism, industrial capitalism, capitalist country, capitalist economy, capitalist society, capitalist system, capitalist world

care

primary care, provide care, careful analysis, careful attention, careful consideration, careful thought, (be) carefully controlled, (be) carefully selected

career

career development, career opportunity, academic career

carry

carry information

carry out

carry out (the) task, carry out research (of)

case

civil case, exceptional case, individual case, specific case

cast

cast doubt (on)

category

broad category, fall into (the) category (of), general category, main category

causal

causal link, causal relation, causal relationship

cause

cause consequences, cause stress, major cause, underlying cause

centre

central authority, central concept, central concern, central control, central core, central feature, central focus, central government, central importance, central issue, central part, central point, central position, central problem, central question, central role, central tenet, central theme, urban centre

certain

certain aspect, certain assumptions, certain characteristics, certain circumstances

challenge

face (a) challenge, major challenge, pose (a) challenge, present (a) challenge, serious challenge

change

change (an) attitude, change constantly, change dramatically, change rapidly, climate change, cultural change, demographic change, dramatic change, economic change, fundamental change, historical change, major change, minor change, radical change, significant change, structural change, technological change, environmental changes, changing attitudes, changing circumstances, changing nature, changing needs, changing pattern, changing world, ever changing, rapidly changing, remain unchanged

chapter

final chapter, following chapter, introductory chapter, opening chapter, preceding chapter, previous chapter, subsequent chapter

characteristic

characteristic feature, common characteristic, defining characteristic, key characteristic, salient characteristic, specific characteristic, certain characteristics, demographic characteristics, individual characteristics, main characteristics, physical characteristics, similar characteristics

charge

(be) highly charged

chemical

chemical reaction

choose

individual choice, personal choice, (be) randomly chosen

circle

(in) academic circles

circumstance

certain circumstances, changing circumstances, exceptional circumstances, historical circumstances, local circumstances, personal circumstances, political circumstances, social circumstances, special circumstances

cite

(be) frequently cited

civil

civil case, civil society

class

class consciousness, lower class, ruling class

classic

classic example, classic study, classic text, classic work, classical theory

clear

clear boundary, clear distinction, clear evidence, clear focus, clear indication, clear relationship, clear statement, clear structure, entirely clear, fairly clear, (be) clearly defined, (be) clearly demonstrated, (be) clearly established, (be) clearly identified, (be) clearly related (to), clearly evident, clearly important, clearly understand, clearly visible, remain unclear

climate

climate change, current climate, political climate, climatic conditions

close

close contact, close proximity, close relationship, close scrutiny, (be) closely allied (to, with), (be) closely associated (with), (be) closely connected (to, with), (be) closely linked (to, with), (be) closely related (to), (be) closely tied, closely resemble, (on/upon) closer inspection, (upon, on) closer examination, closer look

clue

provide (a) clue

cognitive

cognitive ability, cognitive development, cognitive skills

collaborative

collaborative learning

colleague

professional colleague

collect

collect data, collect information, collective action, collective identity, collective memory

combine

combined effect

come into

come into conflict (with)

come into

come into contact (with)

comment

make (a) comment, written comment

commercial

commercial activity, commercial transaction

commit

commit (a) crime, commit (an) offence

common

common ancestor, common approach, common assumption, common characteristic, common culture, common error, common feature, common goal, common method, common source, common theme, common usage, fairly common, increasingly common, relatively common, (be) commonly accepted, (be) commonly associated (with), (be) commonly called, (be) commonly encountered, (be) commonly found (in), (be) commonly known (as), (be) commonly referred (to) (as), (be) commonly used

communicate

communicate effectively, direct communication, effective communication, electronic communication, personal communication, verbal communication, written communication

community

academic community, ethnic community, international community, local community, rural community, scientific community, virtual community, wider community

compare

comparative analysis, comparative research, comparative study

compel

compelling argument, compelling evidence, compelling reason

compete

increased competition, competitive market, competitive pressure, highly competitive

competence

demonstrate competence

complete

complete (a) task

complex

complex area, complex interaction, complex issue, complex pattern, complex problem, complex process, complex question, complex relationship, complex set, complex situation, complex structure, complex system, extremely complex, highly complex, increasingly complex, increasing complexity

component

basic component, essential component, fundamental component, individual component, key component, main component, major component

comprehensive

comprehensive account, comprehensive approach, comprehensive overview, comprehensive review, comprehensive system

concentrate

high concentration

concept

abstract concept, basic concept, central concept, defining concept, key concept, theoretical concept, use (the) concept concept, conceptual framework

concern

central concern, environmental concern, major concern, primary concern, (be) mainly concerned (with), (be) particularly concerned (with), (be) primarily concerned (with)

concerted

concerted effort

conclude

concluding remarks, concluding section, draw (a) conclusion, general conclusion, lead to (the) conclusion, logical conclusion

condition

sufficient condition, conditional probability, appropriate conditions, climatic conditions, create conditions, economic conditions, experimental conditions, living conditions, natural conditions, normal conditions

conduct

conduct (a) study, conduct (a) survey, conduct (an) analysis, conduct (an) interview, conduct research

confer

annual conference, attend (a) conference, hold (a) conference, international conference, national conference

confine

(be) largely confined (to)

conflict

conflict resolution, armed conflict, come into conflict (with), internal conflict, political conflict, potential conflict, resolve (a) conflict, social conflict, conflicting interests

connect

(be) closely connected (to, with), (be) directly connected (to, with), (be) intimately connected (to, with)

connotation

negative connotation, positive connotation

consciousness

class consciousness, political consciousness

consent

general consensus, political consensus, reach (a) consensus, give consent, informed consent

consequent

cause consequences, direct consequences, economic consequences, environmental consequences, have consequences, negative consequences, political consequences, possible consequences, serious consequences, social consequences, unintended consequences

consider

consider (a) possibility, consider (an) aspect, consider (an) issue, consider (the) impact (of), consider (the) implications, consider (the) role (of), consider appropriate, consider relevant, careful consideration, ethical consideration, further consideration, give consideration, political consideration, practical consideration, require consideration, take into consideration, (be) generally considered

considerable

(a) considerable amount (of), (a) considerable degree (of), (be of) considerable importance, (in) considerable detail, (to a) considerable extent, considerable attention, considerable debate, considerable effort, considerable evidence, considerable influence, considerable interest, considerable research, considerable support, considerable variation, differ considerably, vary considerably

consist

consistent pattern, consistent results

constant

constant rate, relatively constant, remain constant, change constantly

constitute

constituent elements, constituent parts

constrain

impose constraints

construct

social construct, (be) socially constructed

contact

close contact, come into contact (with), direct contact, first contact, maintain contact, make contact, personal contact, physical contact, sexual contact, social contact

contain

contain (an) element, contain information

contemporary

contemporary debate, contemporary issue, contemporary life, contemporary society, contemporary world

context

broader context, cultural context, economic context, global context, historical context, institutional context, international context, original context, political context, present context, provide context, social context, specific context, wider context, contextual factors

continue

continued existence, continued growth, continued use, continuous process

controversy

controversial issue, highly controversial

convene

conventional view, conventional wisdom

convey

convey (a) message, convey information, convey meaning

convince

convincing evidence

cope

coping strategy

core

core area, core element, core issue, core skills, core value, central core

correct

correct (an) error, correct interpretation, politically correct

correlate

(be) highly correlated (with), (be) negatively correlated (with), (be) positively correlated (with), (be) significantly correlated (with), (be) strongly correlated (with), high correlation, negative correlation, positive correlation, significant correlation, significant correlation, strong correlation

cost

additional cost, rising cost

counter

counter argument

country

capitalist country, industrial country, industrialized country

cover

cover (a) range (of), cover (a) topic, cover (an) area, media coverage, provide coverage

create

create (an) environment, create (an) impression, create (an) opportunity, create conditions, create opportunities, create problems, newly created, creative process, creative thinking, creative work

crime

commit (a) crime, criminal offence

crisis

economic crisis

criteria

meet criteria, objective criteria, use criteria

critical

critical analysis, critical approach, critical attention, critical essay, critical evaluation, critical examination, critical factor, critical importance, critical inquiry, critical introduction, critical issue, critical perspective, critical point, critical reflection, critical review, critical role, critical scrutiny, critical theory, critical thinking, critical writing, highly critical, critically evaluate, radical critique

crucial

crucial difference, crucial factor, crucial importance, crucial part, crucial point, crucial question, crucial role

culture

cultural activity, cultural aspect, cultural attitudes, cultural background, cultural boundary, cultural change, cultural context, cultural differences, cultural dimension, cultural diversity, cultural factors, cultural heritage, cultural history, cultural identity, cultural influence, cultural institution, cultural issue, cultural life, cultural norm, cultural perspective, cultural phenomenon, cultural practice, cultural significance, cultural theory, cultural tradition, cultural values, culturally specific, common culture, dominant culture, global culture, local culture, modern culture, national culture, political culture, popular culture, traditional culture

currency

foreign currency, single currency

current

current climate, current issue, current policy, current research, current status, current technology, current trend, currently available

customer

potential customer

daily

daily living

damage

environmental damage

dangerous

potentially dangerous

deal

deal (with an) issue

death

premature death

debate

academic debate, considerable debate, contemporary debate, heated debate, ongoing debate, political debate, public debate, theoretical debate

decade

next decade, previous decade, early decades, recent decades

decide

final decision, major decision, strategic decision

deem

deem appropriate, deem necessary

deep

(a) deep understanding (of), (at/on a) deeper level, (be) deeply embedded, (be) deeply rooted

define

(be) broadly defined, (be) clearly defined, defining characteristic, defining concept, defining feature, broad definition, general definition, narrow definition, precise definition, use (the) definition

degradation

environmental degradation

degree

(a) considerable degree (of), (a) higher degree (of), (a) significant degree (of), varying degree

deliberate

deliberate attempt

demand

increased demand, increasing demand

democracy

liberal democracy, social democracy, western democracy, democratic institution, democratic process, democratic society, democratic state

demographic

demographic change, demographic characteristics, demographic factor

demonstrate

demonstrate competence, (be) clearly demonstrated

densely

(be) densely populated

deny

deny access (to)

department

government department

dependent

dependent variable, highly dependent

describe

describe (a) procedure, describe (a) method, describe (a) process, briefly describe, (be) best described (as, in terms of), previously described, accurate description, brief description, descriptive statistics

design

experimental design, urban design, (be) specifically designed (to, for), well designed

desire

highly desirable, socially desirable, desired outcome

detail

(in) considerable detail, sufficient detail, technical detail, detailed analysis, detailed examination, detailed information, detailed study

determined

(be) largely determined (by)

develop

develop (a) method, develop (a) strategy, develop (a) technique, develop (a) theory, develop (an) argument, develop (an) approach, (be) fully developed, (be) highly developed, (be) originally developed, career development, cognitive development, contribute to (the) development (of), encourage (the) development (of), facilitate (the) development (of), further development, future development, historical development, industrial development, normal development, physical development, professional development, promote (the) development (of), regional development, significant development, subsequent development, technological development, urban development, affect (the) development (of), developmental process, developmental stage

diagnostic

diagnostic test

differ

differ considerably, differ significantly, differ widely, crucial difference, fundamental difference, major difference, obvious difference, sexual difference, significant difference, substantial difference, cultural differences, ethnic differences, individual differences, racial differences, radical differences, regional differences, (be) markedly different, entirely different, fundamentally different, qualitatively different, radically different, slightly different, substantially different, totally different, widely different, behave differently, think differently, treat differently

difficult

increasingly difficult, encounter difficulties, experience difficulties, face difficulties, learning difficulties, practical difficulties, present difficulties

digital

digital information, digital media, digital technology

dilemma

ethical dilemma, face (a) dilemma, moral dilemma

dimension

cultural dimension, political dimension, social dimension

direct

direct access, direct communication, direct consequences, direct contact, direct evidence, direct impact, direct involvement, direct link, direct observation, direct relationship, direct role, (be) directly affected, (be) directly connected (to, with), (be) directly involved (in), (be) directly linked (to), (be) directly linked (to, with), (be) directly proportional (to), (be) directly related (to), (be) directly responsible (for), directly affect

disaster

natural disaster

discipline

academic discipline

disclose

disclose information

discourse

academic discourse, dominant discourse, public discourse, scientific discourse

discover

newly discovered

discriminate

face discrimination, positive discrimination, racial discrimination

discuss

discuss (a) topic, discuss (an) issue, briefly discuss, (be) widely discussed, previously discussed, brief discussion, earlier discussion, fuller discussion, preceding discussion, previous discussion

disperse

(be) widely dispersed

display

public display

dispose

disposable income

dispute

resolve (a) dispute

distinct

distinct group, distinct type, clear distinction, draw (a) distinction, make (a) distinction, sharp distinction, distinctive feature

distinguish

distinguishing feature

distribute

(be) widely distributed, geographic(al) distribution, normal distribution

diverse

(a) diverse range (of), diverse background, diverse group, cultural diversity, ethnic diversity, great diversity

divide

(be) further divided (into), dividing line

document

(be) well documented

documentary

documentary evidence

domain

public domain

domestic

domestic market, domestic sphere, domestic violence

dominate

male dominance, dominant culture, dominant discourse, dominant form, dominant group, dominant ideology, dominant paradigm, dominant position, dominant role

drama

dramatic change, dramatic effect, dramatic increase, change dramatically, increase dramatically

draw

draw (a) conclusion, draw (a) distinction, draw (a) line, draw attention (to)

drive

driving force

due

due process

duration

long duration, maximum duration, short duration

dynamic

dynamic equilibrium, dynamic nature, dynamic process, dynamic system

early

earlier discussion, earlier period, earlier research, earlier stage, earlier study, earlier times, earlier version, earlier work, early decades, early study

easy

(be) easily identified, (be) easily understood, easily accessible, easy access

economy

economic activity, economic affairs, economic analysis, economic benefits, economic change, economic conditions, economic consequences, economic context, economic crisis, economic exploitation, economic factors, economic forces, economic goal, economic growth, economic inequality, economic integration, economic interests, economic policy, economic power, economic prosperity, economic reform, economic relations, economic relationships, economic resources, economic sector, economic stability, economic status, economic structure, economic success, economic system, economic theory, economic value, economic welfare, advanced economy, capitalist economy, global economy, local economy, national economy, political economy, rural economy

edit

revised edition

educate

(be) highly educated, well educated, higher education, primary education, secondary education, educational institution, educational opportunity, educational policy, educational programme, educational provision, educational qualification, educational research, educational setting, educational system

effect

adverse effect, beneficial effect, combined effect, dramatic effect, negative effect, overall effect, positive effect, profound effect, significant effect, similar effect, effective communication, effective implementation, effective intervention, effective management, effective method, effective participation, effective policy, effective treatment, highly effective, particularly effective, communicate effectively, use effectively, work effectively, environmental effects

efficient

highly efficient

effort

concerted effort, considerable effort, research effort

election

presidential election

electronic

electronic access, electronic communication, electronic media, electronic resources, electronic version

element

basic element, contain (an) element, core element, essential element, individual element, key element, main element, single element, structural element, constituent elements

embed

(be) deeply embedded

emerge

newly emerging

emission

reduce emissions

emotion

emotional impact, emotional intelligence, emotional reaction, emotional response, emotional support

emphasis

give emphasis, greater emphasis, increasing emphasis, particular emphasis, place emphasis, shift emphasis, special emphasis, strong emphasis

empirical

empirical data, empirical evidence, empirical investigation, empirical research, empirical study, empirical support, empirical work

employ

employ (a) method, employ (a) technique, employment opportunities, full employment, paid employment, high unemployment, low unemployment

encounter

encounter difficulties, encounter problems, first encounter, (be) commonly encountered

encourage

encourage (the) development (of)

energy

atomic energy, nuclear energy, renewable energy, solar energy

engage in

engage in (an) activity

enhance

enhance learning, enhance performance, greatly enhance

enormous

(an) enormous amount (of), enormous impact

entire

(the) entire range (of), entire period, entirely clear, entirely different, entirely new

entity

separate entity, single entity

environment

create (an) environment, external environment, immediate environment, learning environment, natural environment, physical environment, political environment, social environment, urban environment, environmental changes, environmental concern, environmental consequences, environmental damage, environmental degradation, environmental effects, environmental factors, environmental impact, environmental issues, environmental policy, environmental pollution, environmental protection

equal

equal access, equal opportunity, equal status, equal treatment, roughly equal, gender equality, greater equality, promote equality, racial equality, social equality, equally important, equally likely, equally true, equally valid, apply equally, treat equally, economic inequality, social inequality, unequal power

equilibrium

dynamic equilibrium

equivalent

roughly equivalent

error

common error, correct (an) error, random error, standard error

essay

critical essay

essential

essential component, essential element, essential feature, essential function, essential information, essential role

establish

establish (a) relationship, established order, established practice, established principle, (be) clearly established, (be) firmly established, (be) well established, become established, long established, newly established, once established

ethic

ethical consideration, ethical dilemma, ethical issue, ethical principle, ethical problem, ethical question

ethnic

ethnic community, ethnic differences, ethnic diversity, ethnic group, ethnic identity, ethnic minority, ethnic origin

evaluate

critically evaluate, critical evaluation

event

historical event

ever

ever changing, ever increasing

evident

ample evidence, anecdotal evidence, available evidence, clear evidence, compelling evidence, considerable evidence, convincing evidence, direct evidence, documentary evidence, empirical evidence, experimental evidence, find evidence, further evidence, give evidence, historical evidence, little evidence, present evidence, provide evidence, recent evidence, research evidence, scientific evidence, show evidence, strong evidence, substantial evidence, sufficient evidence, supporting evidence, (be) particularly evident, become evident, clearly evident

evolve

biological evolution, evolutionary process, evolutionary theory

examine

(upon, on) closer examination, critical examination, detailed examination, examine (the) role (of)

example

classic example, obvious example, prime example, provide (an) example, specific example, striking example, typical example

exception

notable exception, exceptional case, exceptional circumstances

exclude

social exclusion, mutually exclusive

exercise

exercise authority

exist

continued existence, existing data, existing research, existing structure

expand

expand rapidly, rapid expansion

expect

high expectations, meet expectations, social expectations

expend

government expenditure, public expenditure

experience

experience difficulties, experience problems, individual experience, personal experience, previous experience, prior experience, professional experience, shared experience, experiential learning

experiment

experimental conditions, experimental data, experimental design, experimental evidence, experimental method, experimental research, experimental results, experimental study, experimental work

expert

expert opinion, technical expertise

explain

alternative explanation, further explanation, give (an) explanation, plausible explanation, possible explanation, provide (an) explanation, explanatory power

explicit

make explicit, state explicitly

exploit

economic exploitation, sexual exploitation

explore

explore (an) issue, explore further

expression

facial expression

extend

extended period, extensive research, (be) extensively used, (to a) considerable extent

external

external environment, external factors, external forces, external influences, external source, external threat, external world

extract

extract data, extract information

extreme

extremely complex, extremely powerful, extremely sensitive, extremely useful, extremely valuable

face

face (a) challenge, face (a) dilemma, face (a) problem, face difficulties, face discrimination, facial expression

facilitate

facilitate (the) development (of)

fact

factual information

factor

critical factor, crucial factor, demographic factor, key factor, main factor, major factor, related factor, significant factor, specific factor, associated factors, contextual factors, cultural factors, economic factors, environmental factors, external factors, historical factors, identify factors, political factors, relevant factors, social factors

fair

fair treatment, fairly clear, fairly common, fairly obvious, fairly straightforward, unfair treatment

faith

religious faith

fall into

fall into (the) category (of)

feature

central feature, characteristic feature, common feature, defining feature, distinctive feature, distinguishing feature, essential feature, general feature, key feature, main feature, major feature, particular feature, positive feature, prominent feature, salient feature, significant feature, specific feature, striking feature, structural feature, identify features, physical features

federal

federal agency, federal government, federal state

feedback

give feedback, negative feedback, positive feedback, provide feedback, provide feedback, receive feedback

feminist

feminist movement

few

relatively few

field

field research

figure

significant figures

final

final analysis, final answer, final chapter, final decision, final outcome, final phase, final point, final position, final product, final result, final section, final stage, final step, final version

finance

financial affairs, financial assistance, financial institution, financial management, financial market, financial problem, financial resources, financial support

find

find evidence, find information, key findings, main findings, preliminary findings, report findings, research findings

finite

finite number, infinite number

firmly

(be) firmly established

first

first author, first contact, first draft, first encounter, first generation, first impression, first phase, first priority

flexible

greater flexibility, flexible approach

flow

information flow

focal

focal point

focus

focus attention (on), become (the) focus (of), central focus, clear focus, main focus, major focus, particular focus, primary focus, provide (a) focus, specific focus, focus on (an) aspect

follow

follow (a) format, follow (a) procedure, follow instructions, following chapter, immediately following

force

driving force, military force, powerful force, economic forces, external forces

foreign

foreign currency, foreign investment, foreign investor, foreign policy

form

alternative form, appropriate form, dominant form, modified form, specific form, traditional form, newly formed

formal

formal structure

format

follow (a) format, standard format, use (a) format

formula

general formula

found

(be) commonly found (in), (be) frequently found, (be) generally found

foundation

provide (a) foundation (for)

fraction

small fraction

framework

conceptual framework, institutional framework, legal framework, regulatory framework, theoretical framework

free

free access, free movement, religious freedom, freely available

frequency

high/er frequency, low/er frequency, (be) frequently cited, (be) frequently found, (be) frequently referred (to), (be) frequently used, occur frequently

fulfil

fulfil (an) obligation

full

(a, the) full range (of), full analysis, full employment, full information, full participation, full potential, fuller discussion, (be) fully developed, (be) fully informed, (be) fully integrated, (be) fully realized, fully aware, fully understand

function

basic function, essential function, main function, perform (a) function, primary function, serve (a) function, social function, specific function, functional requirement

fund

public funds

fundamental

fundamental aspect, fundamental assumption, fundamental change, fundamental component, fundamental difference, fundamental importance, fundamental principle, fundamental problem, fundamental question, fundamentally different

further

(be) further divided (into), further analysis, further consideration, further development, further evidence, further explanation, further information, further investigation, further research, further study, explore further

future

future development, future prospects, future research, future study

gain

gain access (to), gain information, gain insight (into)

gather

gather data, gather information, data gathering, information gathering

gender

gender equality, gender stereotype

general

general agreement, general approach, general argument, general aspect, general category, general conclusion, general consensus, general definition, general feature, general formula, general overview, general principle, general statement, general tendency, general theory, general trend, (be) generally accepted, (be) generally assumed, (be) generally considered, (be) generally found, (be) generally known (as, by), generally agree

generation

first generation, next generation, previous generation, younger generation

genetic

genetic variation

geography

geographic(al) area, geographic(al) distribution, geographic(al) location

get

get involved (with/in)

give

give (a) presentation, give (an) explanation, give (an) indication (of), give (an) overview (of), give (sb an) impression, give (sb) treatment, give access (to), give consent, give consideration, give emphasis, give evidence, give feedback, give priority (to), give guidance, give information, give insight (into), given information, given period

globe

global capitalism, global context, global culture, global economy, global issue, global market, global marketplace, global media, global network, global perspective, global shift, global structure, global trade, global village

goal

achieve (a) goal, common goal, economic goal, set (a) goal, ultimate goal

goods

imported goods

government

government control, government department, government expenditure, government intervention, government policy, central government, federal government, local government, municipal government, national government, representative government

graphical

graphical representation

great

(a) great proportion (of), (a) great range (of), great accuracy, great diversity, great impact, great majority, great potential, great significance, greater autonomy, greater awareness, greater emphasis, greater equality, greater flexibility, greater likelihood, (be) greatly influenced (by), (be) greatly reduced, greatly enhance, greatly increase, vary greatly

group

distinct group, diverse group, dominant group, ethnic group, homogeneous group, minority group, powerful group, racial group, religious group, vulnerable group

grow

grow rapidly, growing awareness, growing trend, rapidly growing, continued growth, economic growth, significant growth

guide

give guidance, provide guidance, guiding principle

hardly

hardly surprising

harm

potential harm

have

have (a) strategy, have (a) tendency (to), have (an) obligation, have access (to), have consequences, have limitations, have potential

health

mental health, physical health

heat

heated debate

heavy

(be) heavily influenced (by), rely heavily (on)

help

seek help

heritage

cultural heritage

hierarchy

hierarchical structure

high

(a) high proportion (of), high concentration, high correlation, high expectations, high incidence, high intensity, high level, high order, high percentage, high priority, high probability, high profile, high quality, high rate, high score, high standard, high status, high turnover, high unemployment, high value, relatively high, high/er frequency, (a) higher degree (of), higher education, significantly higher, slightly higher, (be) highly charged, (be) highly correlated (with), (be) highly developed, (be) highly educated, (be) highly structured, (be) highly valued, highly competitive, highly complex, highly controversial, highly critical, highly dependent, highly desirable, highly effective, highly efficient, highly influential, highly likely, highly problematic, highly relevant, highly selective, highly sensitive, highly significant, highly skilled, highly sophisticated, highly successful, highly unlikely, highly variable

history

historical account, historical analysis, historical background, historical change, historical circumstances, historical context, historical data, historical development, historical event, historical evidence, historical factors, historical interpretation, historical knowledge, historical period, historical perspective, historical reality, historical record, historical roots, historical study, historical writing, historically specific, brief history, cultural history, natural history, oral history

hold

hold (a) conference

holistic

holistic approach

homogeneous

homogeneous group

huge

(a) huge amount (of)

human

human activity, human behaviour, human interaction, human society, human species

ideally

(be) ideally suited

identical

almost identical

identify

(be) clearly identified, (be) easily identified, identify (a) problem, identify (a) way, identify (an) area, identify (an) issue, identify factors, identify features, multiple identities, collective identity, cultural identity, ethnic identity, national identity, political identity, religious identity, sexual identity, social identity

ideology

dominant ideology, political ideology

ignorant

(be) largely ignored

illness

mental illness

illustrate

provide (an) illustration

image

positive image, public image, visual image

immediate

immediate environment, immediately apparent, immediately following, immediately obvious, immediately preceding

impact

assess (the) impact (of), consider (the) impact (of), direct impact, emotional impact, enormous impact, environmental impact, great impact, likely impact, little impact, major impact, make (an) impact, negative impact, positive impact, potential impact, profound impact, significant impact

implement

effective implementation, successful implementation

imply

consider (the) implications, major implications, political implications, social implications, wider implications

import

imported goods, imported products

important

(be of) considerable importance, (be of) paramount importance, (be of) vital importance, central importance, critical importance, crucial importance, fundamental importance, increased importance, increasing importance, perceived importance, strategic importance, clearly important, equally important, increasingly important

impose

impose constraints, impose limitations, impose restrictions

impossible

virtually impossible

impression

create (an) impression, first impression, give (sb an) impression, make (an) impression

improve

improved performance, significant improvement

incidence

high incidence

income

disposable income, low income, middle income, national income, total income

increase

increase (the) likelihood, increase awareness, increase dramatically, dramatic increase, greatly increase, significant increase, significantly increase, increased awareness, increased competition, increased demand, increased importance, increased interest, increased level, increased number, increased pressure, increased production, increased productivity, increased risk, (a) increasing proportion (of), increasing awareness, increasing complexity, increasing demand, increasing emphasis, increasing importance, increasing interest, increasing pressure, increasing tendency, increasing trend, ever increasing, increasingly aware, increasingly common, increasingly complex, increasingly difficult, increasingly important, increasingly popular, increasingly sophisticated

independent

independent state, independent variable, become independent

indicate

clear indication, give (an) indication (of), provide (an) indication (of)

indigenous

indigenous people, indigenous population

individual

individual behaviour, individual case, individual characteristics, individual choice, individual component, individual differences, individual element, individual experience, individual interests, individual item, individual needs, individual response, individual responsibility, individual rights, individual variable, individual variation, particular individual, private individual, single individual, unique individual

industrial

industrial capitalism, industrial country, industrial development, industrial production, industrial society, industrialized country, industrialized nation

inextricably

(be) inextricably linked (to, with)

influence

considerable influence, cultural influence, major influence, positive influence, powerful influence, significant influence, (be) greatly influenced (by), (be) heavily influenced (by), (be) strongly influenced (by), external influences, highly influential, particularly influential

inform

informed consent, (be) fully informed

information

information flow, information gathering, information processing, information retrieval, information sharing, accurate information, add information, additional information, available information, basic information, carry information, collect information, contain information, convey information, detailed information, digital information, disclose information, essential information, extract information, factual information, find information, full information, further information, gain information, gather information, give information, given information, limited information, little information, necessary information, obtain information, personal information, process information, provide information, receive information, related information, relevant information, reliable information, seek information, share information, specific information, statistical information, store information, sufficient information, transmit information, useful information, valuable information

initial

initial period, initial phase, initial position, initial research, initial stage

initiate

new initiative, take initiative

innovate

technological innovation

inquire

critical inquiry

insight

gain insight (into), give insight (into), new insight, offer insight (into), provide insight (into)

inspect

(on/upon) closer inspection

institute

academic institution, cultural institution, democratic institution, educational institution, financial institution, national institution, political institution, public institution, social institution, institutional arrangement, institutional context, institutional framework, institutional structure, institutional support

instruct

follow instructions

integral

integral part

integrate

integrated approach, integrated system, (be) fully integrated, economic integration, social integration

intellectual

intellectual property, intellectual work

intelligent

artificial intelligence, emotional intelligence

intend

(be) originally intended, original intent, unintended consequences

intense

high intensity, low intensity, intensive study

interact

complex interaction, human interaction, significant interaction, social interaction

intercourse

sexual intercourse

interest

considerable interest, increased interest, increasing interest, national interest, personal interest, renewed interest, vested interest, interested party, conflicting interests, economic interests, individual interests

internal

internal affairs, internal conflict, internal control, internal market, internal organ, internal structure

international

international agreement, international body, international community, international conference, international context, international journal, international organization, international treaty

internet

internet access

interpersonal

interpersonal relationships, interpersonal skills

interpret

interpret data, correct interpretation, historical interpretation, literal interpretation, alternative interpretion

intervene

effective intervention, government intervention

interview

conduct (an) interview

intimate

intimate relationship, (be) intimately connected (to, with)

intrinsic

intrinsic value

introduce

introduce legislation, brief introduction, critical introduction, introductory chapter, introductory section, introductory text

invest

foreign investment, private investment, foreign investor

investigate

empirical investigation, further investigation, scientific investigation

involve

(be) actively involved, (be) directly involved (in), become involved (with/in), get involved (with/in), active involvement, direct involvement

isolate

social isolation

issue

address (an) issue, central issue, complex issue, consider (an) issue, contemporary issue, controversial issue, core issue, critical issue, cultural issue, current issue, deal (with an) issue, discuss (an) issue, ethical issue, explore (an) issue, global issue, identify (an) issue, key issue, legal issue, main issue, major issue, methodological issue, practical issue, raise (an) issue, real issue, related issue, relevant issue, similar issue, single issue, special issue, specific issue, technical issue, theoretical issue, wider issue, environmental issues

item

individual item

journal

academic journal, international journal, online journal, publish (a) journal, scholarly journal

judgement

make(a) judgement

keenly

keenly aware

key

key area, key aspect, key characteristic, key component, key concept, key element, key factor, key feature, key findings, key issue, key objective, key player, key policy, key principle, key role, key source, key text, key theme, key topic

know

(be) commonly known (as), (be) generally known (as, by), (be) widely known, previously known

knowledge

acquire knowledge, background knowledge, historical knowledge, personal knowledge, previous knowledge, prior knowledge, professional knowledge, require knowledge, specific knowledge, tacit knowledge, technical knowledge

language

appropriate language, national language, natural language, verbal language

large

(a) large proportion (of), (a) large range (of), large majority, large percentage, large portion, large quantities (of), (be) largely based (on), (be) largely confined (to), (be) largely determined (by), (be) largely ignored, (be) largely responsible (for)

later

later work, later writings

law

natural law

lead

lead to (the) conclusion, opinion leader, party leader, political leader, leading role

learn

learning activity, learning difficulties, learning environment, learning objective, learning outcome, learning process, learning resources, learning strategy, collaborative learning, enhance learning, experiential learning, lifelong learning

legal

legal action, legal basis, legal framework, legal issue, legal obligation, legal position, legal proceedings, legal protection, legal requirement, legal right, legal rule, legal status, legal system

legislate

introduce legislation, national legislation, proposed legislation, legislative measures, legislative power

level

(at/on a) deeper level, appropriate level, high level, increased level, low level, minimum level, overall level, stress level

life

academic life, contemporary life, cultural life, lifelong learning

likely

greater likelihood, increase (the) likelihood, reduce (the) likelihood, likely impact, likely outcome, equally likely, highly likely, highly unlikely, seem unlikely

limit

have limitations, impose limitations, (a) limited range (of), limited access, limited capacity, limited information, limited opportunity, limited resources, unlimited access

line

dividing line, draw (a) line, linear relationship

link

causal link, direct link, strong link, (be) closely linked (to, with), (be) directly linked (to), (be) directly linked (to, with), (be) inextricably linked (to, with), (be) strongly linked

literal

(in a) literal sense, literal interpretation, literal meaning

literary

literary text, literary tradition

literature

published literature, relevant literature, scholarly literature

little

little evidence, little impact, little information, little research, little significance, relatively little

living

living conditions, living organism, living standard, daily living, make (a) living

local

local area, local authority, local circumstances, local community, local culture, local economy, local government

locate

geographic(al) location

logic

logical approach, logical argument, logical conclusion

long

long duration, long established

longitudinal

longitudinal study

look

closer look

low

low/er frequency, low income, low intensity, low level, low percentage, low priority, low probability, low profile, low quality, low status, low turnover, low unemployment, relatively low, lower class

main

main area, main argument, main category, main characteristics, main component, main element, main factor, main feature, main findings, main focus, main function, main issue, main principle, main source, main task, main theme, (be) mainly concerned (with)

maintain

maintain contact

major

major advantage, major area, major cause, major challenge, major change, major component, major concern, major contribution, major decision, major difference, major factor, major feature, major focus, major impact, major implications, major influence, major issue, major part, major problem, major reason, major role, major shift, major source, major theme, great majority, large majority, overwhelming majority, simple majority, vast majority

make

make (a) comment, make (a) contribution, make (a) distinction, make (a) living, make (a) prediction, make (a) recommendation, make (a) statement, make (a) transition, make (an) argument, make (an) assessment, make (an) assumption, make (an) impact, make (an) impression, make (an) observation, make adjustments, make arrangements, make available, make aware, make contact, make explicit, make policy, make provision, make visible, make(a) judgement

male

male dominance

manage

effective management, financial management, middle management, senior management, strategic management, top management

manual

manual worker

manufacture

manufacturing sector

marked

marked contrast, (be) markedly different

market

competitive market, domestic market, financial market, global market, internal market, national market, global marketplace

material

provide material, published material, relevant material, source material, useful material

maximise

maximum duration

mean

mean score

meaning

convey meaning, literal meaning, original meaning, particular meaning, shared meaning, specific meaning, (in a) meaningful way

means

alternative means, useful means

measure

accurate measurement, legislative measures

media

media coverage, digital media, electronic media, global media, national media, popular media, visual media

medical

medical assistance, medical treatment

meet

meet (a) target, meet (a) requirement, meet (an) objective, meet criteria, meet expectations, annual meeting

member

prominent member

memory

collective memory

mental

mental health, mental illness, mental state

mention

previously mentioned

merit

relative merits

message

convey (a) message

method

alternative method, apply (a) method, common method, describe (a) method, develop (a) method, effective method, employ (a) method, experimental method, modern method, qualitative method, quantitative method, scientific method, standard method, statistical method, traditional method, use (a) method, methodological approach, methodological issue, methodological problem, research methodology, use (a) methodology

metropolitan

metropolitan area

middle

middle income, middle management

migrate

migrant worker

military

military action, military force, military power, military service

minimum

minimum level, minimum requirement, minimum standard, minimum value, minimum wage

minor

minor change, minor role, relatively minor, minority group, ethnic minority, small minority

missing

missing data

mobility

social mobility, political mobilization

model

alternative model, original model, theoretical model

modern

modern culture, modern method, modern society, modern technology

modify

modified form, modified version

moral

moral dilemma, moral philosophy, moral principle

motive

(be) politically motivated

movement

feminist movement, free movement, national movement, political movement, religious movement, social movement

multiple

multiple identities, multiple sources

municipal

municipal government

mutual

mutual recognition, mutual support, mutual trust, mutual understanding, mutually exclusive

narrow

(a) narrow range (of), narrow definition

nation

industrialized nation, national average, national boundary, national conference, national culture, national economy, national government, national identity, national income, national institution, national interest, national language, national legislation, national market, national media, national movement, national policy, national press, national security, national survey

native

native speaker

nature

natural conditions, natural disaster, natural environment, natural history, natural language, natural law, natural order, natural philosophy, natural process, natural resources, natural right, natural science, natural tendency, natural world, naturally occurring, occur naturally, changing nature, dynamic nature, precise nature

necessary

necessary information, deem necessary

need

perceived need, changing needs, individual needs, physical needs, specific needs

negate

negative aspect, negative attitude, negative connotation, negative consequences, negative correlation, negative effect, negative feedback, negative impact, negative outcome, negative side, negative stereotype, negative value, negative view, (be) negatively correlated (with)

network

global network

new

new initiative, new insight, new perspective, entirely new, newly acquired, newly created, newly discovered, newly emerging, newly established, newly formed

next

next decade, next generation, next phase

norm

cultural norm, social norm

normal

normal conditions, normal development, normal distribution, normal practice

notable

notable exception

nuclear

nuclear energy, nuclear family, nuclear power, nuclear war, nuclear weapon

number

finite number, increased number, infinite number, significant number, substantial number, vast number, numerical data, numerical value, numerous studies

objective

objective criteria, objective reality, achieve (an) objective, key objective, learning objective, meet (an) objective, primary objective, set (an) objective, strategic objective, scientific objectivity

obligation

fulfil (an) obligation, have (an) obligation, legal obligation

observation

direct observation, make (an) observation

obtain

obtain (a) result, obtain data, obtain information

obvious

obvious difference, obvious example, obvious point, obvious reason, become obvious, fairly obvious, immediately obvious, seem obvious

occur

occur frequently, occur naturally, naturally occurring

offence

commit (an) offence, criminal offence, serious offence

offer

offer (an) opportunity, offer insight (into)

official

official statistics

once

once established

ongoing

ongoing debate, ongoing process

open

open access, opening chapter, opening section

opinion

opinion leader, expert opinion

opportunity

create opportunities, employment opportunities, career opportunity, create (an) opportunity, educational opportunity, equal opportunity, limited opportunity, offer (an) opportunity, provide (an) opportunity, unique opportunity

oppose

(be) strongly opposed, binary opposition

optimal

optimal solution

oral

oral history, oral presentation

order

established order, high order, natural order

organ

internal organ

organise

organising principle, international organization, political organization, social organization, organizational structure

organism

living organism

orient

sexual orientation

origin

ethnic origin, original author, original context, original data, original intent, original meaning, original model, original position, original research, original source, original text, original version, original work, (be) originally developed, (be) originally intended

outcome

achieve (an) outcome, affect (the) outcome, desired outcome, final outcome, learning outcome, likely outcome, negative outcome, positive outcome, possible outcome

overall

overall aim, overall effect, overall level, overall performance, overall picture, overall rate, overall structure

overview

brief overview, comprehensive overview, general overview, give (an) overview (of), provide (an) overview (of)

overwhelming

overwhelming majority

paid

paid employment

panel

solar panel

paradigm

dominant paradigm

paragraph

previous paragraph

parameter

set (the) parameters

paramount

(be of) paramount importance

part

central part, crucial part, integral part, major part, previous part, significant part, substantial part, vital part, (be) partly responsible (for), constituent parts

participate

active participant, active participation, effective participation, full participation, political participation

offence

commit (an) offence, criminal offence, serious offence

offer

offer (an) opportunity, offer insight (into)

official

official statistics

once

once established

ongoing

ongoing debate, ongoing process

particular

particular area, particular aspect, particular emphasis, particular feature, particular focus, particular individual, particular meaning, (be) particularly concerned (with), (be) particularly evident, (be) particularly suited (to), particularly acute, particularly apparent, particularly appropriate, particularly effective, particularly influential, particularly relevant, particularly sensitive, particularly significant, particularly striking, particularly successful, particularly useful, particularly valuable

party

party leader, interested party, political party, ruling party, third party

past

past research

pattern

changing pattern, complex pattern, consistent pattern, similar pattern

peace

peace treaty

peak

reach (a) peak

people

indigenous people

perceive

perceived importance, perceived need, perceived threat, public perception, visual perception

percent

high percentage, large percentage, low percentage, small percentage

perform

perform (a) function, perform (a) study, perform (a) task, academic performance, enhance performance, improved performance, overall performance, superior performance

period

brief period, earlier period, entire period, extended period, given period, historical period, initial period, short period, whole period

personal

personal choice, personal circumstances, personal communication, personal contact, personal control, personal experience, personal information, personal interest, personal knowledge, personal quality, personal relationship, personal responsibility, personal safety, personal space

perspective

critical perspective, cultural perspective, global perspective, historical perspective, new perspective, theoretical perspective

phase

final phase, first phase, initial phase, next phase

phenomenon

cultural phenomenon, social phenomenon

philosophy

moral philosophy, natural philosophy, political philosophy

physical

physical activity, physical appearance, physical characteristics, physical contact, physical development, physical environment, physical features, physical health, physical needs, physical presence, physical properties, physical proximity, physical science, physical space, physical symptom, physical world

picture

accurate picture, overall picture

pilot

pilot study

pioneering

pioneering work

pivotal

pivotal role

place

place emphasis

planning

planning stage, strategic planning

plausible

plausible explanation, seem plausible

play

play (a) role (in), key player

point

appropriate point, central point, critical point, crucial point, final point, focal point, obvious point

policy

current policy, economic policy, educational policy, effective policy, environmental policy, foreign policy, government policy, key policy, make policy, national policy, public policy, security policy, social policy

political

political activism, political activity, political agenda, political arena, political authority, political circumstances, political climate, political conflict, political consciousness, political consensus, political consequences, political consideration, political context, political culture, political debate, political dimension, political economy, political environment, political factors, political identity, political ideology, political implications, political instability, political institution, political leader, political mobilization, political movement, political organization, political participation, political party, political philosophy, political reality, political reform, political representation, political significance, political spectrum, political stability, political status, political structure, (be) politically motivated, politically correct

pollution

environmental pollution

poorly

(be) poorly understood

popular

popular culture, popular media, increasingly popular

population

(be) densely populated, (be) sparsely populated, indigenous population, rural population

portion

large portion, significant portion, small portion

pose

pose (a) challenge, pose (a) problem, pose (a) question, pose (a) threat (to)

position

central position, dominant position, final position, initial position, legal position, original position, privileged position, unique position

positive

positive action, positive aspect, positive attitude, positive connotation, positive correlation, positive discrimination, positive effect, positive feature, positive feedback, positive image, positive impact, positive influence, positive outcome, positive relationship, positive result, positive value, positive view, (be) positively associated (with), (be) positively correlated (with)

possible

consider (a) possibility, possible consequences, possible explanation, possible outcome, possible source

potential

potential benefits, potential conflict, potential customer, potential harm, potential impact, potential problem, potential risk, potential source, potential value, full potential, great potential, have potential, potentially dangerous

power

economic power, explanatory power, legislative power, military power, nuclear power, predictive power, purchasing power, solar power, unequal power, powerful force, powerful group, powerful influence, powerful tool, extremely powerful

practical

practical consideration, practical difficulties, practical issue, practical significance

practice

cultural practice, established practice, normal practice, professional practice, reflective practice, religious practice, traditional practice, administrative practices

precede

take precedence (over), preceding chapter, preceding discussion, preceding section, immediately preceding

precise

precise definition, precise nature

predict

make (a) prediction

predictive

predictive power

preferential

preferential treatment

preliminary

preliminary data, preliminary findings, preliminary result

premature

premature death

premise

basic premise

present

physical presence, present (a) challenge, present (a) summary, present (an) argument, present context, present data, present difficulties, present evidence

presentation

give (a) presentation, oral presentation

presidential

presidential election

press

national press

pressure

competitive pressure, increased pressure, increasing pressure

previous

previous chapter, previous decade, previous discussion, previous experience, previous generation, previous knowledge, previous paragraph, previous part, previous research, previous section, previous study, previous work, previously described, previously discussed, previously known, previously mentioned, previously thought

primary

(be) primarily concerned (with), (be) primarily responsible (for), primary aim, primary care, primary concern, primary data, primary education, primary focus, primary function, primary objective, primary purpose, primary reason, primary research, primary responsibility, primary source, primary task

prime

prime example, prime time

principal

principal source

principle

basic principle, established principle, ethical principle, fundamental principle, general principle, guiding principle, key principle, main principle, moral principle, organising principle, underlying principle

prior

prior experience, prior knowledge

priority

first priority, give priority (to), high priority, low priority

private

private individual, private investment, private sector, private sphere

privileged

privileged position

probability

conditional probability, high probability, low probability

problem

problem area, additional problem, central problem, complex problem, ethical problem, face (a) problem, financial problem, fundamental problem, identify (a) problem, major problem, methodological problem, pose (a) problem, potential problem, related problem, specific problem, technical problem, highly problematic, create problems, encounter problems, experience problems

proceed

adopt (a) procedure, describe (a) procedure, follow (a) procedure, use (a) procedure, legal proceedings

process

process data, process information, assessment process, begin (a) process, complex process, continuous process, creative process, democratic process, describe (a) process, developmental process, due process, dynamic process, evolutionary process, learning process, natural process, ongoing process, slow process, start (a) process, thinking process, thought process, underlying process, information processing

product

final product, increased production, industrial production, increased productivity, imported products

professional

professional activity, professional body, professional colleague, professional development, professional experience, professional knowledge, professional practice, professional qualification, professional staff, professional standard, professional status, professional support, professional training, professional work

profile

high profile, low profile

profound

profound effect, profound impact

programme

educational programme

progress

technological progress

prominent

prominent feature, prominent member, prominent role

promote

promote (the) development (of), promote equality

properly

(be) properly understood

property

physical properties, similar properties, structural properties, intellectual property

proportion

(a) great proportion (of), (a) high proportion (of), (a) increasing proportion (of), (a) large proportion (of), (a) significant proportion (of), (a) small proportion (of), (be) directly proportional (to)

propose

proposed legislation

prospect

future prospects

prosperity

economic prosperity

protection

environmental protection, legal protection

prove

prove successful, prove useful

provide

provide (a) benefit, provide (a) clue, provide (a) focus, provide (a) foundation (for), provide (a) service, provide (a) source, provide (a) summary, provide (an) alternative, provide (an) example, provide (an) explanation, provide (an) illustration, provide (an) indication (of), provide (an) opportunity, provide (an) overview (of), provide access (to), provide assistance, provide care, provide context, provide coverage, provide data, provide evidence, provide feedback, provide guidance, provide information, provide material, provide resources, provide support, provide feedback, provide insight (into), educational provision, make provision

proximity

close proximity, physical proximity

public

public access, public administration, public attitudes, public authority, public awareness, public debate, public discourse, public display, public domain, public expenditure, public funds, public image, public institution, public perception, public policy, public sector, public sphere, public transport, public welfare, wider public, publicly available

publish

publish (a) journal, publish (a) report, publish (an) article, publish research, published literature, published material, published research, published work

purchase

purchasing power

purpose

primary purpose, specific purpose

purposes

(for) research purposes

qualification

educational qualification, professional qualification

qualitative

qualitative analysis, qualitative approach, qualitative data, qualitative method, qualitative research, qualitative study, qualitatively different

quality

high quality, low quality, personal quality

quantity

quantitative analysis, quantitative approach, quantitative data, quantitative method, quantitative research, quantitative result, quantitative study, large quantities (of), small quantities (of), vast quantities (of)

question

central question, complex question, crucial question, ethical question, fundamental question, pose (a) question, raise (a) question, reflective question, related question, specific question

racial

racial differences, racial discrimination, racial equality, racial group, racial stereotype

radical

radical change, radical critique, radical differences, radical transformation, radically different

raise

raise (a) question, raise (an) issue, raise awareness

random

random error, random sample, random variable, (be) randomly assigned (to), (be) randomly chosen, (be) randomly selected

range

(a) broad range (of), (a) diverse range (of), (a) great range (of), (a) large range (of), (a) limited range (of), (a) narrow range (of), (a) vast range (of), (a) whole range (of), (a) wide range (of), (a, the) full range (of), (the) entire range (of), cover (a) range (of)

rapid

rapid expansion, rapidly changing, rapidly growing, change rapidly, expand rapidly, grow rapidly

rare

relatively rare

rate

annual rate, constant rate, high rate, overall rate

raw

raw data

reach

reach (a) consensus, reach (a) peak, reach (an) agreement

react

adverse reaction, chemical reaction, emotional reaction, strong reaction

read

widely read

ready

(be) readily understood, readily accessible, readily available, ready access

real

real issue, historical reality, objective reality, political reality

realize

(be) fully realized

reason

compelling reason, major reason, obvious reason, primary reason, underlying reason

receive

receive feedback, receive information, receive treatment, well received

recent

recent decades, recent evidence, recent research, recent study, recent survey, relatively recent

reciprocal

reciprocal relationship

recognize

mutual recognition, (be) widely recognized

recommend

make (a) recommendation

record

record data, accurate record, historical record

recurrent

recurrent theme

reduce

reduce (the) likelihood, reduce emissions, reduce stress, (be) greatly reduced, (be) significantly reduced, significant reduction

refer

specific reference, (be) commonly referred (to) (as), (be) frequently referred (to)

reflect

critical reflection, reflective practice, reflective question

reform

economic reform, political reform, social reform, welfare reform

regarded

(be) widely regarded (as)

region

regional development, regional differences, regional variation

regulate

regulatory agency, regulatory framework

relate

related activity, related area, related aspect, related factor, related information, related issue, related problem, related question, related topic, (be) clearly related (to), (be) closely related (to), (be) directly related (to), (be) strongly related (to), causal relation, economic relations, causal relationship, clear relationship, close relationship, complex relationship, direct relationship, establish (a) relationship, intimate relationship, linear relationship, personal relationship, positive relationship, reciprocal relationship, significant relationship, social relationship, special relationship, strong relationship, symbiotic relationship, economic relationships, interpersonal relationships, relative autonomy, relative merits, relative status, relatively common, relatively constant, relatively few, relatively high, relatively little, relatively low, relatively minor, relatively rare, relatively recent, relatively simple, relatively stable, relatively straightforward

relevant

relevant data, relevant factors, relevant information, relevant issue, relevant literature, relevant material, consider relevant, highly relevant, particularly relevant

religious

religious belief, religious faith, religious freedom, religious group, religious identity, religious movement, religious practice

rely

reliable data, reliable information, rely heavily (on)

remain

remain constant, remain stable, remain unchanged, remain unclear

remark

remarkably similar, concluding remarks

remove

(be) far removed (from)

renew

renewable energy, renewed interest

report

report data, report findings, annual report, publish (a) report

representation

graphical representation, political representation, schematic representation, visual representation

representative

representative government

require

require consideration, require knowledge, require resources, functional requirement, legal requirement, meet (a) requirement, minimum requirement

research

(for) research purposes, research effort, research evidence, research findings, research methodology, research topic, academic research, basic research, carry out research (of), comparative research, conduct research, considerable research, current research, earlier research, educational research, empirical research, existing research, experimental research, extensive research, field research, further research, future research, initial research, little research, original research, past research, previous research, primary research, publish research, published research, qualitative research, quantitative research, recent research, scholarly research, scientific research, traditional research, undertake research

resemble

bear resemblance (to), closely resemble

resolve

conflict resolution, resolve (a) conflict, resolve (a) dispute

resource

additional resources, allocate resources, available resources, economic resources, electronic resources, financial resources, learning resources, limited resources, natural resources, provide resources, require resources, scarce resources, sufficient resources, use resources, valuable resources

respond

respond appropriately, appropriate response, emotional response, individual response

responsible

accept responsibility, assume responsibility, individual responsibility, personal responsibility, primary responsibility, social responsibility, take responsibility, (be) directly responsible (for), (be) largely responsible (for), (be) partly responsible (for), (be) primarily responsible (for), socially responsible

restrict

impose restrictions

result

final result, obtain (a) result, positive result, preliminary result, quantitative result, similar result, consistent results, experimental results

retrieval

information retrieval

review

review (a) study, annual review, brief review, comprehensive review, critical review

revise

revised edition, revised version

rich

rich source

right

legal right, natural right, individual rights

rising

rising cost

risk

risk assessment, increased risk, potential risk

role

active role, assume (the) role (of), central role, consider (the) role (of), critical role, crucial role, direct role, dominant role, essential role, examine (the) role (of), key role, leading role, major role, minor role, pivotal role, play (a) role (in), prominent role, significant role, take (a) role (in), take on (the)  role (of, as), take up (the) role (of, as), vital role

root

(be) deeply rooted, historical roots

roughly

roughly equal, roughly equivalent

rule

legal rule, ruling class, ruling party

rural

rural area, rural community, rural economy, rural population, rural society

safe

safe sex, personal safety

salient

salient characteristic, salient feature

sample

random sample

scarce

scarce resources

scheme

schematic representation

scholarly

scholarly journal, scholarly literature, scholarly research, scholarly work

science

biological science, natural science, physical science, scientific community, scientific discourse, scientific evidence, scientific investigation, scientific method, scientific objectivity, scientific research, scientific theory

score

average score, high score, mean score, test score

scrutiny

close scrutiny, critical scrutiny

secondary

secondary data, secondary education, secondary source

section

concluding section, final section, introductory section, opening section, preceding section, previous section

sector

business sector, economic sector, manufacturing sector, private sector, public sector, service sector, state sector

secure

security policy, national security

seek

seek help, seek information

seem

seem appropriate, seem obvious, seem plausible, seem unlikely

select

(be) carefully selected, (be) randomly selected, highly selective

seminal

seminal study, seminal work

senior

senior management

sense

(in a) literal sense, specific sense, extremely sensitive, highly sensitive, particularly sensitive

separate

separate entity

serious

serious challenge, serious consequences, serious offence

serve

serve (a) function

service

service sector, military service, provide (a) service

set

set (a) goal, set (a) target, set (an) objective, set (the) agenda, set (the) parameters, complex set, data set

setting

educational setting, social setting

severely

severely affect

sex

biological sex, safe sex, sexual abuse, sexual act, sexual behaviour, sexual contact, sexual difference, sexual exploitation, sexual identity, sexual intercourse, sexual orientation, sexual violence

share

share information, shared experience, shared meaning, shared values, widely shared, information sharing

sharp

sharp contrast, sharp distinction

shift

global shift, major shift, significant shift, shift emphasis

short

short duration, short period

show

show (a) tendency, show (a) trend, show evidence, show variation

side

negative side

sign

sign (a) treaty

significant

cultural significance, great significance, little significance, political significance, practical significance, social significance, statistical significance, (a) significant amount (of), (a) significant degree (of), (a) significant proportion (of), significant change, significant contribution, significant correlation, significant correlation, significant development, significant difference, significant effect, significant factor, significant feature, significant figures, significant growth, significant impact, significant improvement, significant increase, significant influence, significant interaction, significant number, significant part, significant portion, significant reduction, significant relationship, significant role, significant shift, significant variation, highly significant, particularly significant, statistically significant, (be) significantly correlated (with), (be) significantly reduced, significantly affect, significantly higher, significantly increase, contribute significantly, differ significantly, vary significantly

similar

similar approach, similar argument, similar characteristics, similar effect, similar issue, similar pattern, similar properties, similar result, similar situation, broadly similar, remarkably similar

simple

simple majority, relatively simple, simplified version

single

single currency, single element, single entity, single individual, single issue, single source, single variable

situation

complex situation, similar situation

skill

technical skill, transferable skill, skilled worker, highly skilled, academic skills, appropriate skills, cognitive skills, core skills, interpersonal skills, unskilled worker

slightly

slightly different, slightly higher

slow

slow process

small

(a) small proportion (of), small fraction, small minority, small percentage, small portion, small quantities (of)

social

social activity, social aspect, social attitudes, social background, social behaviour, social circumstances, social conflict, social consequences, social construct, social contact, social context, social democracy, social dimension, social environment, social equality, social exclusion, social expectations, social factors, social function, social identity, social implications, social inequality, social institution, social integration, social interaction, social isolation, social mobility, social movement, social norm, social organization, social phenomenon, social policy, social reform, social relationship, social responsibility, social setting, social significance, social status, social structure, social theory, social transformation, social trend, social welfare, (be) socially constructed, socially acceptable, socially desirable, socially responsible, capitalist society, civil society, contemporary society, democratic society, human society, industrial society, modern society, rural society, traditional society, western society, wider society, socioeconomic status

solar

solar energy, solar panel, solar power, solar system

solution

alternative solution, optimal solution

sophisticated

highly sophisticated, increasingly sophisticated

source

source material, alternative source, become (a) source (of), common source, external source, key source, main source, major source, original source, possible source, potential source, primary source, principal source, provide (a) source, rich source, secondary source, single source, use (a) source, useful source, multiple sources

sovereign

sovereign state

space

personal space, physical space

sparingly

use sparingly

sparsely

(be) sparsely populated

speaker

native speaker

special

special circumstances, special emphasis, special issue, special relationship, special status

species

human species

specific

specific area, specific aspect, specific case, specific characteristic, specific context, specific example, specific factor, specific feature, specific focus, specific form, specific function, specific information, specific issue, specific knowledge, specific meaning, specific needs, specific problem, specific purpose, specific question, specific reference, specific sense, specific type, culturally specific, historically specific, (be) specifically designed (to, for)

spectrum

broad spectrum, political spectrum

sphere

domestic sphere, private sphere, public sphere

stable

political instability, economic stability, political stability, relatively stable, remain stable

staff

professional staff

stage

developmental stage, earlier stage, final stage, initial stage, planning stage

standard

standard approach, standard error, standard format, standard method, high standard, living standard, minimum standard, professional standard

stark

stark contrast

start

start (a) process

state

state explicitly, state sector, democratic state, federal state, independent state, mental state, sovereign state, clear statement, general statement, make (a) statement, written statement

statistic

statistical analysis, statistical data, statistical information, statistical method, statistical significance, statistical technique, statistical test, statistically significant, descriptive statistics, official statistics, use statistics

status

current status, economic status, equal status, high status, legal status, low status, political status, professional status, relative status, social status, socioeconomic status, special status

step

final step

stereotype

gender stereotype, negative stereotype, racial stereotype

store

store data, store information

straightforward

fairly straightforward, relatively straightforward

strategy

strategic decision, strategic importance, strategic management, strategic objective, strategic planning, alternative strategy, coping strategy, develop (a) strategy, have (a) strategy, learning strategy, teaching strategy, use (a) strategy

stress

stress level, cause stress, reduce stress

striking

striking contrast, striking example, striking feature, particularly striking

strong

strong bond, strong correlation, strong emphasis, strong evidence, strong link, strong reaction, strong relationship, strong tendency, (be) strongly associated (with), (be) strongly correlated (with), (be) strongly influenced (by), (be) strongly linked, (be) strongly opposed, (be) strongly related (to), strongly agree, strongly disagree, strongly suggest

structure

structural adjustment, structural change, structural element, structural feature, structural properties, basic structure, clear structure, complex structure, economic structure, existing structure, formal structure, global structure, hierarchical structure, institutional structure, internal structure, organizational structure, overall structure, political structure, social structure, underlying structure, (be) highly structured

study

numerous studies, academic study, classic study, comparative study, conduct (a) study, detailed study, earlier study, early study, empirical study, experimental study, further study, future study, historical study, intensive study, longitudinal study, perform (a) study, pilot study, previous study, qualitative study, quantitative study, recent study, review (a) study, seminal study, subsequent study, systematic study, theoretical study

subject

subject area

subsequent

subsequent analysis, subsequent chapter, subsequent development, subsequent study, subsequent work

substantial

(a) substantial amount (of), substantial difference, substantial evidence, substantial number, substantial part, substantially different

success

academic success, economic success, successful implementation, highly successful, particularly successful, prove successful

sufficient

sufficient condition, sufficient detail, sufficient evidence, sufficient information, sufficient resources

suggest

strongly suggest

suited

(be) ideally suited, (be) particularly suited (to)

summary

brief summary, present (a) summary, provide (a) summary, useful summary

superior

superior performance

support

support (an) argument, additional support, considerable support, emotional support, empirical support, financial support, institutional support, mutual support, professional support, provide support, technical support, widespread support, supporting evidence

surprising

hardly surprising

survey

survey data, conduct (a) survey, national survey, recent survey

symbiotic

symbiotic relationship

symptom

physical symptom

system

binary system, capitalist system, complex system, comprehensive system, dynamic system, economic system, educational system, integrated system, legal system, solar system, transport system

systematic

systematic analysis, systematic approach, systematic study

tacit

tacit knowledge

take

take (a) role (in), take (an) approach, take initiative, take precedence (over), take responsibility, take into consideration, take on (the)  role (of, as), take up (the) role (of, as)

target

target audience, meet (a) target, set (a) target

task

carry out (the) task, complete (a) task, main task, perform (a) task, primary task

teach

teaching strategy

technical

technical aspect, technical assistance, technical detail, technical expertise, technical issue, technical knowledge, technical problem, technical skill, technical support, technical term

technique

basic technique, develop (a) technique, employ (a) technique, statistical technique, use (a) technique

technology

technological advances, technological change, technological development, technological innovation, technological progress, advanced technology, current technology, digital technology, modern technology

tendency

general tendency, have (a) tendency (to), increasing tendency, natural tendency, show (a) tendency, strong tendency

tenet

central tenet

term

technical term

test

test (a) theory, test score, diagnostic test, statistical test

text

classic text, introductory text, key text, literary text, original text, textual analysis

theme

thematic analysis, central theme, common theme, key theme, main theme, major theme, recurrent theme

theory

theoretical analysis, theoretical approach, theoretical basis, theoretical concept, theoretical debate, theoretical framework, theoretical issue, theoretical model, theoretical perspective, theoretical study, theoretical understanding, theoretical work, apply (the) theory, classical theory, critical theory, cultural theory, develop (a) theory, economic theory, evolutionary theory, general theory, scientific theory, social theory, test (a) theory, use (a) theory

think

think differently, thinking process, creative thinking, critical thinking

third

third party

thought

thought process, careful thought, previously thought

threat

external threat, perceived threat, pose (a) threat (to)

tied

(be) closely tied

tightly

(be) tightly controlled

time

brief time, prime time

times

earlier times

tool

analytical tool, powerful tool, useful tool

top

top management

topic

cover (a) topic, discuss (a) topic, key topic, related topic, research topic

total

total income, totally different

trade

global trade

tradition

cultural tradition, literary tradition, western tradition, traditional approach, traditional culture, traditional form, traditional method, traditional practice, traditional research, traditional society, traditional value, traditional view

training

professional training

transaction

business transaction, commercial transaction

transfer

transferable skill

transform

radical transformation, social transformation, undergo transformation

transit

make (a) transition

transmit

transmit data, transmit information

transport

transport system, public transport

treat

treat differently, treat equally, appropriate treatment, effective treatment, equal treatment, fair treatment, give (sb) treatment, medical treatment, preferential treatment, receive treatment, unfair treatment

treaty

international treaty, peace treaty, sign (a) treaty

trend

current trend, general trend, growing trend, increasing trend, show (a) trend, social trend

true

equally true

trust

mutual trust

turnover

high turnover, low turnover

type

distinct type, specific type

typical

typical example

ultimate

ultimate goal

undergo

undergo transformation

underlie

underlying assumption, underlying cause, underlying principle, underlying process, underlying reason, underlying structure

understand

clearly understand, fully understand, (a) deep understanding (of), mutual understanding, theoretical understanding, (be) easily understood, (be) poorly understood, (be) properly understood, (be) readily understood

undertake

undertake (an) activity, undertake research, undertake work

unique

unique individual, unique opportunity, unique position

universally

(be) universally accepted

urban

urban area, urban centre, urban design, urban development, urban environment

usage

common usage

use

use (a) format, use (a) method, use (a) methodology, use (a) procedure, use (a) source, use (a) strategy, use (a) technique, use (a) theory, use (an) approach, use (the) analysis, use (the) concept concept, use (the) data data, use (the) definition, use criteria, use effectively, use resources, use sparingly, use statistics, continued use, widespread use, (be) commonly used, (be) extensively used, (be) frequently used, (be) widely used, useful information, useful material, useful means, useful source, useful summary, useful tool, extremely useful, particularly useful, prove useful

valid

valid argument, equally valid

value

valuable information, valuable resources, extremely valuable, particularly valuable, core value, economic value, high value, intrinsic value, minimum value, negative value, numerical value, positive value, potential value, traditional value, (be) highly valued, cultural values, shared values

various

various aspects

vary

dependent variable, highly variable, independent variable, individual variable, random variable, single variable, considerable variation, genetic variation, individual variation, regional variation, show variation, significant variation, wide variation, vary considerably, vary greatly, vary significantly, vary widely, varying degree

vast

(a) vast amount (of), (a) vast array (of), (a) vast range (of), vast area, vast majority, vast number, vast quantities (of)

verbal

verbal communication, verbal language

version

earlier version, electronic version, final version, modified version, online version, original version, revised version, simplified version

vested

vested interest

view

alternative view, conventional view, negative view, positive view, traditional view

village

global village

violence

domestic violence, sexual violence

virtual

virtual community, virtually impossible

visible

become visible, clearly visible, make visible

visual

visual image, visual media, visual perception, visual representation

vital

(be of) vital importance, vital part, vital role

vulnerable

vulnerable group

wage

minimum wage

war

nuclear war

way

(in a) meaningful way, alternative way, appropriate way, identify (a) way

weapon

nuclear weapon

welfare

welfare reform, economic welfare, public welfare, social welfare

well

(be) well documented, (be) well established, well aware, well designed, well educated, well received

western

western democracy, western society, western tradition

whole

(a) whole range (of), whole area, whole period

wide

(a) wide array (of), (a) wide range (of), wide area, wide variation, (be) widely accepted, (be) widely adopted, (be) widely believed, (be) widely discussed, (be) widely dispersed, (be) widely distributed, (be) widely known, (be) widely recognized, (be) widely regarded (as), (be) widely used, widely available, widely different, widely read, widely shared, differ widely, vary widely, wider audience, wider community, wider context, wider implications, wider issue, wider public, wider society

widespread

widespread acceptance, widespread belief, widespread support, widespread use, become widespread

wisdom

conventional wisdom

work

work effectively, academic work, classic work, creative work, earlier work, empirical work, experimental work, intellectual work, later work, original work, pioneering work, previous work, professional work, published work, scholarly work, seminal work, subsequent work, theoretical work, undertake work, manual worker, migrant worker, skilled worker, unskilled worker

world

academic world, capitalist world, changing world, contemporary world, external world, natural world, physical world

write

academic writing, critical writing, historical writing, later writings, written comment, written communication, written statement

year

academic year

young

younger generation

3 of 3 Lessons Completed

Materials

Once you’ve completed all three lessons in this short course about Academic Word Lists, you might then wish to download our Lesson Worksheets to check your progress or print for your students. These professional PDF worksheets can be easily accessed for only a few Academic Marks.

Lesson 1 explores the topic: Which vocabulary is in the academic word list? Our Lesson 1 Worksheet (containing guidance, activities and answer keys) can be accessed here at the click of a button. 

Lesson 2 explores the topic: Which phrases are common in academic English? Our Lesson 2 Worksheet (containing guidance, activities and answer keys) can be accessed here at the click of a button. 

Lesson 3 explores the topic: Which words are in the academic collocations list? Our Lesson 3 Worksheet (containing guidance, activities and answer keys) can be accessed here at the click of a button. 

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