What is parallel structure in English grammar?

This is the first of two lessons about Parallel Structures. To complete this course, read each lesson carefully and then unlock and complete our materials to check your understanding.   

– Introduce and explore the basics of grammatical parallelism

– Discuss the importance of parallel structures in English

– Provide examples and images to guide and engage the reader

✨ Exciting Update ✨
Interactive microlearning, coming soon...
🙋 Community Feedback Needed 💬
Receive 50 Marks ✔

Lesson 1

Syntax is the grammatical study of sentence structures. Although students often find English grammar to be challenging as there are a wide variety of aspects to consider, one important area of syntax known as parallelism, or parallel structure, can cause particular issues for non-native speakers of English. This short course on parallel structures is therefore intended to help students with improving their grammatical accuracy. After Lesson 1 has introduced and explored the basic concepts of parallelism, Lesson 2 will then focus specifically on the five pieces of advice that students should follow if they wish to use these structures correctly.    

What is grammatical parallelism?

Although parallelism may also be relevant to the headings and subheadings of academic texts, the concept of using the same grammar pattern across multiple sentence elements is most important when that sentence contains multiple words, phrases or clauses within a series. As can be seen in the example below, such listed elements should usually have a similar level of importance and maintain the same grammatical form to be considered parallel in structure:

This example has provided us with two parallel structures. In (a), we have three plural nouns in a row and in (b) two noun phrases:

Generally then, a sentence that contains a parallel structure is one in which a series of words, phrases or clauses display the same grammatical form. If the first noun in a list is plural, for instance, then all following nouns should be plural too, and if the first verb is in the past tense, then the following verbs should refer to the past also. In addition to this grammatical parallelism, it is also worth noting that such structures are often joined by conjunctions such as ‘and’ or ‘but’.



Why are parallel structures important?

While some examples may still be grammatical in form, if the words, phrases or clauses listed within a sentence are not parallel in structure then they may be more challenging to read or understand than those that are – potentially affecting the grade of an assessed piece of work. With this in mind, take a look at the example sentences below and decide which you think are easier to understand:

Paying attention to parallel structure can not only increase the comprehension of your speech or text and avoid ungrammatical sentences, but it can also help to create balance in your writing. As the following two quotations demonstrate, the use of repeating parallel structures can be used to balance a writer or speaker’s arguments and make them more convincing to the audience:

How should I check for parallelism?

Knowing then that a lack of parallelism in your sentences can create issues with comprehension, it’s important particularly in academic contexts that students remember to check their writing for any parallel-structure errors before submitting their work for assessment or publication.

To do this, students should proofread their work very carefully, looking for any instances in which words, phrases, or clauses are listed either within a sentence or between sentences. By first isolating any expressions that are contained within a series, the writer can then edit these expressions carefully for aspects of parallel structure. For more specific detail about how to do this, continue studying with Lesson 2.

Now that you’ve completed this first lesson on parallel structures, consider checking your understanding of these concepts by unlocking our Lesson 1 Worksheet and attempting the activities. Then move on to Lesson 2 where we deal more specifically with the five tips for successfully identifying and forming parallelism

1 of 2 Lessons Completed


Once you’ve completed both lessons in this short course about Parallel Structures, you might then wish to download our Lesson Worksheets to check your progress or print for your students. These professional PDF worksheets can be easily accessed for only a few Academic Marks.

Lesson 1 explores the topic: What is parallel structure in English grammar? Our Lesson 1 Worksheet (containing guidance, activities and answer keys) can be accessed here at the click of a button.

Lesson 2 explores the topic: Which 5 tips for correct parallel structure are best? Our Lesson 2 Worksheet (containing guidance, activities and answer keys) can be accessed here at the click of a button. 

To save yourself 1 Mark, click on the button below to gain unlimited access to all of our Parallel Structures Lesson Worksheets. This All-in-1 Pack includes every lesson, activity and answer key related this topic in one handy and professional PDF.


There are currently no PowerPoint activities, additional teacher resources or audio and video recordings created for this topic. Please come back again next semester.

Collect Academic Marks

🎁 Free to join the community
  • 20 Marks for joining
  • 3 Marks for visiting daily
  • 10 Marks for writing feedback
  • 20 Marks for leaving a testimonial
  • 20-100 Marks for referring your friends
Summer 2021